Artificial Intelligence and the Growing Water Consumption: A Concern for Sustainability

In recent years, the rapid advancement of technology and the increasing reliance on artificial intelligence (AI) have brought forth numerous benefits and advancements in various industries.

However, the widespread adoption of AI comes at a cost, particularly in terms of its significant impact on water consumption.

Surging Water Consumption by Tech Giants

The surge in water consumption by tech giants is a cause for concern. In the United States alone, which houses around 30% of the world’s data centers, companies like Google and Microsoft have witnessed a substantial increase in their water usage.

According to data provided by Google, its water consumption increased by 20% in 2022, while Microsoft experienced a 34% rise in water consumption during the same period. These figures do not even account for the water resources consumed in electricity generation or hardware manufacturing processes.

Role of Artificial Intelligence in Water Consumption

The growing demand for AI technology and its integration into various products and services has significantly contributed to the surge in water consumption. The development of large-scale AI models requires extensive training, which involves processing massive amounts of data using high-powered computers.

As a result, the energy-intensive training process generates substantial heat, necessitating effective cooling methods. While conventional ventilation systems are an option, using water for cooling the processors proves to be a more cost-effective solution.

Cooling Methods and Water Consumption

To prevent overheating, data centers rely on cooling systems, such as towers that use water and air to dissipate heat. This method is more energy-efficient than electric coolers but involves the evaporation of a significant amount of water, which is then classified as “consumed” by the tech companies.

Depending on external temperature conditions, a cooling tower typically consumes between one and four liters of water per kilowatt-hour of server energy, with higher consumption during summer months.

Approximately 20% of water used in cooling systems is released into wastewater treatment plants, but due to high mineral and salt content, it requires additional treatment before being suitable for human consumption.

Impact on Local Communities and Ecosystems

The escalating water consumption by tech companies has raised concerns among local communities and environmental activists. For instance, in The Dalles, a small town in Oregon, Google’s data center reportedly accounts for over a quarter of the town’s total water consumption, primarily used for cooling thousands of computers.

As a result, residents fear water shortages and potential ecological damage to the Columbia River basin, affecting farmers and wildlife. Similar concerns have arisen in other regions, such as Arizona, Utah, and South Carolina in the United States, as well as the Netherlands and Germany.

Variations in Water Consumption Among Tech Giants

While water consumption has increased across the board, there are variations in the extent of the increase among different tech giants. Meta, the parent company of Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, and Messenger, experienced a 2.7% increase in water consumption in 2022.

On the other hand, Apple witnessed an 8.5% rise, lower than that of Microsoft and Google. These differences can be attributed to varying levels of investment in AI technologies. While Meta and Apple have integrated AI into their applications, they do not possess large-scale AI models comparable to Google’s ChatGPT or Microsoft’s Copilot.

Association Between AI Development and Water Consumption

The development of large-scale AI models, such as ChatGPT, has significantly contributed to the surge in water consumption by tech giants like Google and Microsoft. The training process for these models involves extensive data processing, which requires high-powered computers to analyze and identify patterns in text.

Researchers suggest that the substantial increase in water consumption observed in 2022 can be attributed to the companies’ investments in generative AI and other AI-related services. The integration of AI into everyday products and services, including search engines, has further increased water consumption.

Environmental Impact and Sustainability Concerns

The escalating water consumption by tech giants raises significant sustainability concerns. Researchers estimate that ChatGPT, for example, consumes approximately half a liter of water per 5 to 50 prompts, depending on their complexity.

This estimation includes both the water used during the model’s training, the most water-intensive phase, and the water consumed by the machine to process user queries. As the demand for AI continues to grow, the strain on water resources will become more pronounced, potentially exacerbating water scarcity and environmental degradation.

Location and Water Consumption

The location of data centers plays a crucial role in water consumption. In the past, data centers were predominantly situated in urban areas; however, the increasing energy demands of these facilities have pushed them to the outskirts.

Companies seek locations with stable electricity supply, minimal risk of climate-related disasters, and ample space for expansion. Consequently, data centers are often found near deserts or agricultural areas, allowing for easy scalability. Nevertheless, this trend has prompted concerns regarding social acceptance and potential exploitation of economically disadvantaged regions.

Seeking Sustainable Solutions

As the demand for AI technology continues to rise, finding sustainable solutions to mitigate water consumption becomes increasingly urgent. Tech companies are exploring various options to improve the efficiency of their systems. For example, Meta plans to utilize electric drying systems in their upcoming data centers, eliminating the need for water cooling (excluding water required for electricity generation).

While this approach shows promise, it remains essential to continually monitor and reassess the environmental impact of AI development and data center operations.

Role of Individuals and Policies

While tech companies strive to develop sustainable practices, the responsibility for reducing water consumption cannot rest solely on their shoulders. Individuals can contribute by adopting conscious digital habits, such as minimizing streaming and utilizing cloud storage efficiently.

Furthermore, policymakers play a crucial role in ensuring water sustainability by implementing regulations and incentives that promote responsible water usage in the tech industry.

Collaborative efforts between governments, businesses, and civil society are essential to address the environmental challenges posed by the growing water consumption of AI technologies.


The exponential growth of AI technologies has revolutionized numerous industries, but it has also led to a surge in water consumption by tech giants. As the demand for large-scale AI models continues to rise, it is imperative to address the environmental implications and seek sustainable solutions.

Tech companies, individuals, and policymakers must work together to ensure responsible water usage, promoting a balance between technological advancements and environmental preservation.

Only through collective efforts can we pave the way for a sustainable future in the era of artificial intelligence.