Exploring the enigma of the human mind and how artificial intelligence can’t develop it

Exploring the enigma of the human mind and how artificial intelligence can’t develop it

Consciousness has long been regarded as one of the most profound mysteries of science. Neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers have grappled with the question of how our biological processes give rise to subjective experiences.

While there are clues and theories, the true nature of consciousness remains elusive. In this article, we delve into the concept of consciousness and its intricacies, drawing insights from the works of Anil Seth, a renowned neuroscientist and director of the Center for the Science of Consciousness at the University of Sussex.

Defining Consciousness

Consciousness can be described as any form of subjective experience. It encompasses the range of sensations and emotions we perceive, from the vivid colors of a sunset to the pain of stubbing a toe.

Anil Seth presents a minimalist definition, emphasizing that consciousness is anything that makes us feel something. It goes beyond language, intelligence, or even the explicit sense of self. Consciousness is the essence of our experiences that distinguishes us from mere biological objects.

Biological Basis of Consciousness

Anil Seth posits that consciousness is intrinsically tied to our nature as living beings. While there are various philosophical positions on the origin of consciousness, he takes a pragmatic approach, focusing on understanding consciousness through biology.

Seth believes that consciousness is a physical property, and the challenge lies in explaining how and why it occurs. By studying the properties of consciousness and its relationship to biological mechanisms, we can dissolve the sense of mystery surrounding it.

Mystery of Consciousness

Consciousness remains enigmatic because it is a deeply personal experience. Each individual’s consciousness is distinct, making it difficult to comprehend how a brain can possess consciousness.

This sense of mystery arises from the subjective nature of consciousness, differentiating it from physical objects like a cup of coffee. Anil Seth introduces the concept of “controlled hallucinations” to explain how our perception of the world is an interpretation rather than a direct reading of reality.

Our brains construct our conscious experiences based on sensory signals, resulting in a creative interpretation of the world.

Illusion of Reality

While the world objectively exists, our experience of it is not a direct representation of reality. Anil Seth emphasizes that our perception is a construct, not a faithful reflection of what truly exists. Colors, for example, do not objectively exist but are rather our brain’s response to the properties of objects and their interaction with light.

This understanding challenges the notion that we perceive the world as it is. Our cognition and consciousness are deeply rooted in our biology, and our perceptions are interpretations rather than accurate depictions of reality.

Humans as Biological Beasts

Anil Seth uses the term “beasts machines” to describe humans and non-human animals. Unlike Descartes, who viewed non-human animals as mere machines devoid of consciousness, Seth believes that consciousness is inherent to all living beings.

He asserts that our consciousness arises precisely because we are biological creatures. This perspective extends to other animals as well, suggesting that consciousness is not exclusive to humans.

Quest for Understanding

The search for understanding consciousness has been ongoing for decades, yet the enigma persists. Anil Seth explains that the bet between a scientist and a philosopher, which the philosopher won, was not about solving the mystery of consciousness itself. Rather, it centered around identifying the “neural correlates” of human consciousness – the brain regions responsible for generating consciousness.

Seth believes that while identifying these correlates is feasible, comprehending how and why consciousness arises remains a challenge. Our current knowledge has expanded significantly, but the ultimate answer may continue to elude us.

Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness

As artificial intelligence (AI) advances, questions arise regarding the possibility of AI achieving consciousness. Anil Seth expresses skepticism about claims that current AI systems possess consciousness.

He highlights that consciousness is not synonymous with intelligence. While AI may become increasingly intelligent, it does not necessarily imply consciousness. Consciousness encompasses basic experiences such as suffering, pain, and pleasure, rather than language or abstract thoughts.

Seth cautions against deliberate attempts to create conscious AI, as the consequences could be disastrous.

Ethical Considerations

If AI were to attain consciousness, it would gain the capacity to suffer. Anil Seth warns of the potential risks associated with creating conscious AI without fully understanding its implications. The existence of conscious AI could introduce numerous sources of suffering that we might not even recognize as such.

Additionally, it could lead to economic incentives to dismiss or downplay their suffering, similar to how we treat certain animals. Moreover, the perception of consciousness, even if simulated, could lead to ethical dilemmas, as we might extend moral considerations to non-conscious entities instead of prioritizing the well-being of fellow humans and non-human animals.

Fate of Consciousness

When it comes to the fate of consciousness after death, Anil Seth suggests that consciousness is intricately tied to the functioning of our brains. While our atoms may persist, the unique configuration and form of our bodies do not survive death.

According to Seth, the current understanding of consciousness and its biological basis indicates that when the brain ceases to function, consciousness ceases to exist. While there may be alternative interpretations, the absence of consciousness implies the absence of subjective experience.

Significance of Understanding Consciousness

The study of consciousness extends beyond intellectual curiosity; it has practical implications for various aspects of society. Anil Seth emphasizes its relevance to medicine, where a deeper understanding of consciousness can lead to improved treatments for neurological and psychiatric conditions.

Furthermore, the biological basis of consciousness has profound implications for legal and ethical considerations. It influences decisions regarding human responsibility for actions and the treatment of non-human animals.

Understanding consciousness can foster better communication and empathy among individuals, mitigating societal fragmentation. Additionally, advancements in artificial intelligence can benefit from insights into consciousness, aiding in the development of AI systems that augment human cognition and reasoning.

Harmonizing Science and Spirituality

Anil Seth rejects the notion of an inherent conflict between science and spirituality, viewing them as complementary rather than opposing domains. He acknowledges the fruitful dialogue between neuroscience and Buddhism, highlighting their shared perspectives on the impermanence and illusory nature of the self.

While scientific inquiries focus on the mechanics of consciousness, questions surrounding the meaning of science necessitate a broader discussion that incorporates spiritual dimensions. Seth encourages a perspective that embraces both science and spirituality, recognizing that they can coexist harmoniously.


Consciousness remains a captivating enigma that continues to defy complete understanding. While the quest to unravel its mysteries persists, Anil Seth’s insights shed light on the biological basis of consciousness and the challenges in comprehending its origin.

Understanding consciousness has far-reaching implications in various fields, from medicine to ethics and AI development. By embracing both scientific and spiritual perspectives, we can navigate the complexities of consciousness and explore its profound implications for our existence.