Pedro Nuno Santos: The New Leader of Portugal’s Socialist Party

In a surprising turn of events, Pedro Nuno Santos has emerged as the new leader of the Partido Socialista (PS), the Socialist Party of Portugal. Santos, a 46-year-old politician, secured an impressive victory in the party’s internal primaries, garnering 62% of the votes from party members.

A Generational Shift

Pedro Nuno Santos represents a new generation of leaders within the PS. Born after the Carnation Revolution of 1974, he is the first party leader to have come of age in the post-revolution era.

While Santos may not have been the preferred choice of António Costa, the former Prime Minister and leader of the PS, he managed to win the majority support of party members in the primaries. His victory signifies a changing of the guard within the party and a desire for a fresh approach to governance.

A Smooth Internal Campaign

Unlike previous leadership contests within the PS, the internal campaign leading up to Santos’ election was relatively calm and devoid of intense debates among candidates. The absence of contentious exchanges can be attributed to the unique circumstances surrounding the primaries.

Resignation of António Costa, forced by a judicial case involving his chief of staff and a close friend, created an unexpected crisis within the party. Nevertheless, the internal campaign proceeded with a sense of respect and unity among the candidates.

Santos’ Path to Leadership

Pedro Nuno Santos had long harbored ambitions of leading the PS, although he had not publicly expressed them. His journey to the leadership position began during his tenure as the Minister of Infrastructure and Housing, which lasted until December 2022. However, his relationship with Costa was not always smooth.

In 2022, Santos experienced a public humiliation when Costa overturned a decision he had made regarding the location of a new airport in Lisbon. Despite this setback, Santos remained resilient and continued to build his political career.

Challenges and Redemption

While Santos weathered the storm of controversy surrounding his ministry, his colleague João Galamba faced his own troubles as the Minister of Infrastructure. Galamba’s involvement in the Operation Influencer scandal severely damaged the government’s reputation.

In contrast, Santos managed to redeem himself after accepting responsibility for an illegal indemnity payment made to a state airline administrator. His public apology and seven-hour testimony before a parliamentary investigation committee marked the beginning of his electoral campaign.

A Call for Unity

In his victory speech at the PS headquarters in Lisbon, Pedro Nuno Santos extended an olive branch to his main rival, José Luís Carneiro. He emphasized the party’s tradition of internal cohesion, contrasting it with the Partido Social Democrata (PSD), which has had 19 different leaders compared to the PS’s nine.

Santos also praised his predecessor, António Costa, recognizing the importance of utilizing Costa’s experience and intelligence in the upcoming campaign. He stressed the need for the PS to be open, pluralistic, and democratic in its dialogue with Portuguese society.

Carneiro, Santos’ main contender, ran a campaign aligned with the centrist ideology of the party. In contrast, Santos represented a more leftist vision, being one of the architects of the successful “geringonça” parliamentary agreement between the PS, Bloco de Esquerda, and the Partido Comunista in Costa’s first term.

Looking Ahead to the Legislative Elections

With Pedro Nuno Santos now at the helm of the PS, the party is gearing up to compete in the upcoming legislative elections scheduled for March 10th. In a symbolic passing of the torch, António Costa and Santos held an informal meeting at the party headquarters to discuss the future.

While Costa refrained from revealing his vote in the primaries, he praised Santos for bringing new energy and momentum to the party.

PS faces a more challenging campaign this time around, having lost its second absolute majority in history. However, history has shown that pre-election polls may not accurately reflect the ultimate outcome, as was the case in 2022.

the PSD and the PS were neck and neck in the polls, with no majority predicted. Concerns about the far-right party, Chega, potentially entering a government coalition with the PSD played a role in rallying support for the PS. Additionally, the PS successfully placed blame on its former left-wing parliamentary allies, Bloco de Esquerda and the Partido Comunista, for the crisis that led to early elections.


Pedro Nuno Santos’ rise to the leadership of Portugal’s Socialist Party marks a generational shift and a new chapter for the party. His victory in the internal primaries reflects a desire for change and a fresh approach to governance.

As the PS prepares for the legislative elections, Santos will face the challenge of leading a united and cohesive party. The future of Portuguese politics hangs in the balance, and it remains to be seen how the PS, under Santos’ leadership, will fare in the upcoming campaign.