Sunak’s Controversial Deportation Plan in Rwanda: A Close Call in Parliament

In a tight vote, the UK Parliament narrowly approved the first phase of the highly contentious deportation bill proposed by Prime Minister Rishi Sunak. The bill designates Rwanda as a safe country for asylum and migration, solidifying the treaty agreed upon with the Rwandan government to host refugees and process their aid applications on African soil.

However, the legislation has faced criticism for its potential infringement on constitutional legitimacy and universal human rights.

Battle in Parliament

The Conservative government faced opposition within its own party as some members challenged the authority of Prime Minister Sunak. During the second reading of the bill, conservative MPs abstained from voting, expressing reservations about the proposal.

This legislation aims to reaffirm the sovereignty of the UK Parliament, limit the powers of British courts, disregard sections of the European Convention on Human Rights, and grant a ministerial position the authority to override decisions made by the European Court of Human Rights or other international bodies that impede the deportation of refugees to Rwanda.

Legal Framework: Security of Rwanda (Asylum and Immigration)

Formally titled “Security of Rwanda (Asylum and Immigration),” this bill is a response to the UK Supreme Court’s ruling on the illegality of deporting migrants to Rwanda for processing their asylum claims.

Legislation urgently strengthens the legally binding 2022 Migration-Trade Memorandum between the two countries. The bill has already cost approximately 400 million euros in advance payments to African partners, despite no migrants having been transported to Kigali. Yvette Cooper, the Labour Party’s spokesperson on Home Affairs, denounced this expenditure as a farce, promising to reverse the plan if her party wins the 2024 elections.

Balancing Act: Political and Legal Considerations

The proposed legislation aims to strike a balance within the Conservative Party and the government. It includes provisions to appease both the parliamentary group and prevent a loss of support from the right-wing and centrist factions. Prime Minister Sunak, who has emphasized the need for unity since assuming leadership over a year ago, offered to “adjust” the content of the bill during its parliamentary process.

Moderate Tory MPs, representing the largest group with around one hundred members, pledged initial support for the bill. However, they cautioned that their support could waver if the Prime Minister succumbs to pressure from the abstentionist reactionary wing and accepts amendments contradicting international norms on migration, asylum, and human rights.

The Gravity of the Situation

Severity of the situation prompted Downing Street to recall the Secretary of State for Climate Change from Dubai to ensure his presence during the crucial vote. Other political parties also rallied their members, including a delegation of MPs who canceled an official trip to the Caribbean.

The significance of this bill extends beyond partisan politics, as it holds implications for the UK’s approach to migration and international human rights norms.


The approval of the first phase of the deportation bill represents a fragile victory for Prime Minister Rishi Sunak. However, the battle is far from over, as further debates and voting lie ahead in the parliamentary process. The legislation’s potential impact on constitutional integrity and universal human rights continues to raise concerns among politicians and the general public alike.

This journey of this bill through Parliament will undoubtedly be closely watched, as its outcome will shape the future of the UK’s asylum and immigration policies.